UNEP launches Champions of the Earth, the UN World Environmental Prize. The aim is to pay tribute to prominent figures from the public and private sectors and civil society whose actions have had transformative and positive effects on the environment. Undies member states set up the Global Environment Fund. Since its inception, the Global Environment Facility has provided $14.5 billion in grants and mobilized $75.4 billion in additional funding for nearly 4,000 environmental projects worldwide. In Espoo, Finland, the Convention on environmental impact assessment is defined as an essential framework for managing international environmental concerns. In 1992, the conference presented two conventions that were to be signed by national governments: the Convention on Biological Diversity and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The Rio Declaration was also introduced, which confirmed the Stockholm Declaration and Action 21, which continues to guide governments and non-state actors in environmental protection activities. In Rio, given the growing signs that human activities monitoring economic growth are responsible for serious threats to the environment, the central approach has continued to be sustainable development. It was at this time that some of the global environmental problems that still affect us today began to emerge, including the depletion of the ozone layer, risks to biodiversity and the threat of climate change. International cooperation was absolutely necessary and developed countries should help the poorest countries if humanity were able to face such challenges. The summit will lead to some of the first international agreements on climate change, which will serve as the basis for future agreements.
These include the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) [PDF], which aims to prevent “dangerous” human intervention in the climate system, recognizes that human activities contribute to climate change, and recognizes climate change as a globally important problem. The UNFCCC, which came into force in 1994, does not legally require signatories to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and does not set targets or timetables. However, it requires frequent meetings between countries that have ratified, known as the Conference of the Parties or the COP. Since 2019, it has been ratified by 197 countries, including the United States.